Prioritizing Technical User Stories

As with most software development teams, we struggled with the notion of “technical” user stories early in our Agile adoption. By technical user stories, I’m referring to stories that are difficult to express in the form of a business case that is easily understood by a non-technical person. Usually these stories provide some benefit that isn’t in the form of a new feature. Some types of technical user stories could include:

  • Refactoring code to reduce technical debt
  • Infrastructure or framework upgrades
  • Researching the latest technical hotness

Attempting to write a business case for these stories in the usual fashion often times ends up something like this:

As a Developer I can use the latest version of Java so that I can use it’s cool new features.

— OR —

As a Developer I can refactor the MngrHelperObjectUtil class that was created 9 years ago before we knew what we were doing so that I don’t have to be terrified for my life and take 3 months every time I need to make a change in that godforsaken code.

These business cases aren’t usually very compelling to the product owner as they are difficult to explain and are in direct competition with normal features. So how do these stories ever get worked in?

Not Everything Deserves An Independent User Story

First let me address the problem of stories around refactoring code. It has been my experience that this kind of work usually does not deserve an independent user story. The business case of “so that it’s easier to maintain in the future” is a tough sell unless “the future” means tomorrow.

If you’re already planning on making changes to the code in question then you have a stronger case for refactoring as the payoff will be more quickly realized. As an alternative to creating a new story for this refactoring work, try bundling it with another story that requires you to make changes to this code anyway.

When trying to determine how much refactoring to do, a good rule of thumb is that it should be proportional to the size of the change you are making in the first place. In other words, if you are making a small change then do a small amount of refactoring. This way, you don’t end up with low-value features costing too much; this won’t fly with the Product Owner.

What About Work That Does Deserve An Independent User Story?

As I mentioned already, we struggled with this early on. We tried to take care of these stories under the radar. We didn’t bother prioritizing them with the Product Owner and just understated our capacity so that we would have at least a little bit of time to work on these stories each iteration.

This is clearly the wrong approach for a number of reasons. Your Product Owner needs to be aware of these stories. Some iterations may require more capacity devoted to these stories, and other iterations may not require any technical stories at all. Not accounting for these stories would cause variations in your velocity that make it difficult to plan.

Another approach we tried was just carving out X points each iteration to be devoted to technical stories. This was similar to what we first tried, but at least this way the Product Owner was aware that it was happening and we had a better picture of our velocity. Once again, we found that this approach didn’t work well as the number of points needed for technical stories varies from iteration to iteration. For example, upgrading from Java 1.5 to Java 1.7 probably isn’t going to happen in just 5 points.

After many months of evolving our process we ultimately realized that we just needed these technical stories to be prioritized like any other story. This means that the Product Owner has to understand the benefit of these stories.The development team (or perhaps the Scrum Master) needs to champion these stories and sell them to the Product Owner. It has been my experience that any reasonable Product Owner has no trouble prioritizing these stories.

Going through the prioritization process also has the added benefit of keeping the development team honest. As developers, we have a tendency to want to upgrade to the latest and greatest — but sometimes we need to really think about why and justify taking the time to do it.


Where possible, include technical work as part of a related story rather than making an independent story. Refactor code when you are already modifying code in that part of the application. When technical work warrants its own story, make sure that you prioritize this work with the Product Owner just like any other story. You’ll have a better picture of your velocity and it will help ensure that you only take on work that actually needs to get done.


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